Silica Mineral

Silica mineral, any of the forms of silicon dioxide (SiO2), including quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, coesite, stishovite, lechatelierite, and chalcedony. Various kinds of silica minerals have been produced synthetically; one is keatite.

General considerations
Silica minerals make up approximately 26 percent of Earth’s crust by weight and are second only to the feldspars in mineral abundance. Free silica occurs in many crystalline forms with a composition very close to that of silicon dioxide, 46.75 percent by weight being silicon and 53.25 percent oxygen. Quartz is by far the most commonly occurring form. Tridymite, cristobalite, and the hydrous silica mineral opal are uncommon, and vitreous (glassy) silica, coesite, and stishovite have been reported from only a few localities. Several other forms have been produced in the laboratory but have not been found in nature.

Physical and chemical properties
The crystallographic structures of the silica minerals, except stishovite, are three-dimensional arrays of linked tetrahedrons, each consisting of a silicon atom coordinated by four oxygen atoms. The tetrahedrons are usually quite regular, and the silicon-oxygen bond distances are 1.61 ± 0.02 Å. Principal differences are related to the geometry of the tetrahedral linkages, which may cause small distortions within the silica tetrahedrons. High pressure forces silicon atoms to coordinate with six oxygen atoms, producing nearly regular octahedrons in the stishovite structure.

The silica minerals when pure are colourless and transparent and have a vitreous lustre. They are nonconductors of electricity and are diamagnetic. All are hard and strong and fail by brittle fracture under an imposed stress.

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